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Nineteen Seventy Three

Article #345 • Written by Alan Bellows

▼ Scroll to Continue ▼

On 12 November 1971, in the presidential palace in the Republic of Chile, President Salvador Allende and a British theorist named Stafford Beer engaged in a highly improbable conversation. Beer was a world-renowned cybernetician and Allende was the newly elected leader of the impoverished republic.

Beer, a towering middle-aged man with a long beard, sat face to face with the horn-rimmed, mustachioed, grandfatherly president and spoke at great length in the solemn palace. A translator whispered the substance of Beer's extraordinary proposition into Allende's ear. The brilliant Brit was essentially suggesting that Chile's entire economy--transportation, banking, manufacturing, mining, and more--could all be wired to feed realtime data into a central computer mainframe where specialized cybernetic software could help the country to manage resources, to detect problems before they arise, and to experiment with economic policies on a sophisticated simulator before applying them to reality. With such a pioneering system, Beer suggested, the impoverished Chile could become an exceedingly wealthy nation.

In the early 1970s the scale of Beer's proposed network was unprecedented. One of the largest computer networks of the day was a mere fifteen machines in the US, the military progenitor to the Internet known as ARPANET. Beer was suggesting a network with hundreds or thousands of endpoints. Moreover, the computational complexity of his concept eclipsed even that of the Apollo moon missions, which were still ongoing at that time. After a few hours of conversation President Allende responded to the audacious proposition: Chile must indeed become the world's first cybernetic government, for the good of the people. Work was to start straight away.

Stafford Beer practically ran across the street to share the news with his awaiting technical team, and much celebratory drinking occurred that evening. But the ambitious cybernetic network would never become fully operational if the CIA had anything to say about it.

President Salvador Allende Gossens
President Salvador Allende Gossens

The United States' fascination with Chilean politics began when Salvador Allende Gossens became a viable candidate for the presidency in 1970. He was openly affiliated with the Cold War S-word "socialism", which was evidently intolerable in respectable hemispheres. But the Chilean people were consistently disappointed with the prior political parties and they were considering a switch. Unwilling to risk the democratic ratification of socialism in their "backyard", the Nixon administration deployed covert CIA support for Allende's presidential opponent. But their clandestine counterparts at the KGB fortified their preferred candidate as well, and mutually assured distraction was achieved.

Upon hearing that Allende had won the presidency, President Richard Nixon convened an emergency war breakfast with National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, Attorney General John Mitchell, Chilean newspaper owner Augustín Edwards, and Pepsi Cola chairman Donald Kendall. The businessmen expressed grave concerns about their enterprises in Chile, and the quintet concurred that a Socialist president could not be permitted on a neighboring continent, democracy be damned. When breakfast was adjourned Nixon met with CIA Director Richard Helms, possibly over brunch, and instructed him to arrange for a military coup d’etat to prevent Allende from ever assuming the presidency. He allocated $10 million to the meddlesome endeavor which would come to be known as Project FUBELT.

Five weeks later, on 22 October 1970, a posse of CIA-funded right-wing extremists ambushed a government car in the Chilean capital of Santiago. Inside was General René Schneider, the commander-in-chief of the Chilean army. He was considered an obstacle to the CIA's overthrowing endeavor owing to his misgivings about military intervention in the political process. The General drew a gun to defend himself, and the proxy coup-mongers revised their kidnapping plan to an impromptu homicide. The consequent national outrage cemented the country's support for their president-elect, and Allende was confirmed two days later.

Stafford Beer with his assistant Sonia Mordojovich.
Stafford Beer with his assistant Sonia Mordojovich.

When Allende learned of Stafford Beer's cybernetic Viable System Model, he was intrigued. Cybernetics was an obscure but burgeoning area of study which sought to maximize organizational efficiency through data gathering and statistical analysis, and Beer was among its most flourishing practitioners. Mr Beer’s model suggested that large organizations are like living organisms, therefore they should mimic the successes that evolution had cultivated in humans. Beer felt that business departments should be seen as largely autonomous but interdependent "organs" managed by a "brain" of automated and manual systems. Allende, in spite of his Socialist leanings, was an outspoken proponent of civil liberties and industrial autonomy, and he saw that Beer's cybernetics could foster both in Chile.

Stafford Beer was only 44 years old at the time of the fateful meeting, yet by that time he had amassed considerable wealth and prestige by applying his cybernetic principles for multinational organizations. He had also authored a menagerie of books and papers about cybernetics, one of which was The Liberty Machine, wherein he described a hypothetical utopian government that used cybernetics to supersede bureaucracy and respond to the needs of the populace. Beer saw Chile's new Socialist government as a perfect laboratory to test cybernetic theory on a scale never before attempted.

Upon approval of the experimental project Beer and his team began immediately. Beer labored alongside a young Chilean engineer named Fernando Flores, the general technical manager of the Corporación de Fomento de la Producción (CORFO), the organization in charge of nationalizing Chilean industries. Flores was one of Beer's greatest admirers, and it was he who had initially invited the British cybernetician to proposition the President.

Beer had arrived in Chile with a well-developed plan of action. Anticipating a small budget and poor infrastructure, Beer's idea for the hundreds of network endpoints was to employ telex (aka "teletype") machines. These contraptions were a bit dated even at the time, but they were numerous and inexpensive. A single unit looked like the bizarre offspring of a rotary phone and an electric typewriter, but when one unit connected to another via phone line the clacking print heads printed output from the remote keyboard, and vice-versa, making them a paper-pounding progenitor to modern instant messaging. Telex machines could also print output as coded holes punched into a long paper strip. These could then be fed into the mainframe as old-timey data input. This collection of remote telexes all feeding data to the central mainframe would come to be known as Cybernet. In an astonishing stroke of luck, it turned out that the telephone company had about 400 spare telex machines cultivating cobwebs in a warehouse.

A typical telex machine.
A typical telex machine.

The software for the mainframe, codenamed Cyberstride, would be developed primarily by a British programming firm using the DYNAMO programming language. This suite of algorithms would use realtime and long-term data to detect and predict problems in the economy. Beer and his team would design the futuristic central control room where a group of Chilean policy makers could view these data in various ways and intervene in the economy when necessary. They would also have access to a sophisticated economic simulator, allowing them to test their hypotheses prior to implementation.

The sum of all of these parts would ultimately come to be known as Project Cybersyn, a portmanteau of "cybernetics" and "synergy" from before the words were corporate-speak. True to Beer's Viable System Model, industrial and business sites were the vital organs; Cybernet was the spinal cord to facilitate communication among organs; Cyberstride was the lower brain monitoring these interactions; the control room was the midbrain linking voluntary and involuntary control; and lastly the cerebral cortex was made up of the thinking meat inside the control room.

Stafford Beer also envisioned a parallel system for measuring the happiness of the populace, a system he referred to as Project Cyberfolk. Randomly selected households would be wired with a small electronic box featuring a single volume-style pleasure knob. At any time users could turn the knob to indicate their present level of satisfaction with the government. If multiple meters in an area were set low it would equate to a signal of cybernetic "pain", allowing government to respond appropriately.

At first, Fernando Flores and the CORFO team didn't know what to think of their imported overseer. Stafford Beer was tall, voluminous, and he wore a long beard from which a cigar frequently protruded. He was seldom seen without his whiskey flask, and he was fond of festooning his scientific papers with bits of original poetry and artwork. But his series of indisputable international successes corroborated his cybernetic insight. By day he was an intense phosphorus bulb of intellect, and by night he engaged his colleagues in alcohol-enhanced ponderings on science and philosophy. Cybersyn was to be the ultimate realization of his entire body of theoretical work, and he worked tirelessly to bring it to fruition.

Burroughs 3500 computer system
Burroughs 3500 computer system

Meanwhile, the United States' ongoing efforts to undermine the democratically elected Chilean president were beginning to bear toxic fruit. Despite no formal declaration of unpleasantries, the Nixon administration and the CIA urged governments, banks, and corporations to "drag their feet" in sending money, supplies, machinery, and other such sundries into socialist Chile. Foreign aid dwindled, demand for Chilean copper evaporated, and spare factory parts became scarce. As shortages mounted, the government enacted tax reforms and mandated middle- and lower-class wage increases so consumers could afford necessities, which in turn inflated inflation. Opposition politicians feasted upon the economic gangrene.

The Cybersyn team, aware that their economy-monitoring system might help curtail economic collapse, hurried to establish the central telex communications hub within two months. By early July 1972 about 65 state-owned sites were feeding information into the prototype Cyberstride software running on a Burroughs 3500 mainframe. A month later, as politicians exchanged incendiary blames for the deteriorating economy, violent demonstrations erupted in the streets of Santiago. The government declared a state of emergency. In October forty thousands truckers went on strike, hindering the distribution of food, fuel, and raw materials. Truckers blocked city streets using men, trucks, hodgepodge roadblocks, and miscellaneous violence. Simultaneously, opposition rabblerousers were said to be hoarding or destroying basic consumer goods. Essentials became scarce, and the military became cantankerous.

Fernando Flores stood in the recently completed Cybernet hub and looked upon the silent rows of telex machines. He had an idea. Cybersyn already possessed some cybernetic limbs, organs, and a nervous system, all it lacked to become useful was a functioning brain. He and CORFO programmers began coding. With astonishing swiftness they assembled and inserted a stopgap software brain onto the mainframe. They sent instructions to loyal telex operators around the country, and turned on the power for the slapdash Cybersyn. Soon the previously placid telex communications center was filled with a concurrent mechanical clattering unlike any the men had heard before. ”IT'S ALIIIIIVE!” Flores may or may not have screamed.

Throughout the October strike Cybernet operators around the country dutifully identified the locations of available trucks, loyal drivers, unblocked routes, supplies, and demands. Cybernet alpha collated these data, and CORFO sent drivers on safe, circuitous routes through cities to deliver food, fuel, spare parts, and critical supplies. One senior government official, referring to the particularly bleak 17 October, later asserted, "the government would have collapsed that night if it had not had the cybernetic tool."

Beer's Viable System Model in the Cybersyn control room.
Beer's Viable System Model in the Cybersyn control room.

A little more than a month later, on 30 December 1972, Fernando Flores brought President Allende to a CORFO facility to inspect the newly constructed Cybersyn control room. It was a glistening hexagonal chamber of modern magnificence, whiffing vaguely of carpet glue and fresh fiberglass. There were large, flat viewscreens ensconced in two of the wood-panel walls. Another wall featured an array of lights representing the sectors of the economy, each blinking at a frequency corresponding to the attention needed. The fourth wall, dear reader, held a large metal board where magnets shaped as various symbols could be used to assemble economic flowcharts. The sixth and final wall featured a glowing graphic of Beer’s Viable System Model; a shrine to cybernetics. Tucked into one corner of the room was a mini-bar where these economic custodians could mix cocktails.

Every aspect of the room's design was intended to foster open decision-making among a small cabal of well-informed, intelligent men. In the center of the carpet was affixed a circle of seven sleek white fiberglass swivel chairs. The circular arrangement was to prevent participants from self-organizing an hierarchy, and the odd number of operators ensured there would never be a tied vote. Designers had also taken into account recent research on human memory indicating that the human brain can usefully consider a maximum of seven simultaneous data points. On each identical chair there was an ashtray at the left elbow and a cluster of glowing electronic toggles on the right. These control panels allowed each chair's occupant to navigate the graphs, trends, and photos of the viewscreens like a rudimentary hypertext.

Allende sat in one of the chairs and briefly held power over the room. He scanned the hand-designed slides displayed on the colorful rear-projection viewscreens and breathed in the new-control-room scent. It was still somewhat a facade, but it represented what Chile could become. This was Stafford Beer's cybernetic brain, and it seemed so close to completion. But the president did not savor the unboxing experience for long. There was the more pressing matter of a rumored military coup to attend to.

By early 1973 the Cyberstride software was beginning to solidify even as the undermined Allende government was crumbling. Beer and Flores decided to announce Cybersyn in the hopes that world leaders would see this forward-thinking cybernetic economy monitor and thaw their policies towards Chile. But shortly before the planned announcement the British Observer newspaper ran a story headlined "Chile Run by Computer". The article misrepresented the system as an impenetrable computerized dictator which would rule the economy with a silicone silicon fist, indifferent to the humans it manipulated like so many pixellated chess pieces.

Allende (right) and his new commander in chief Augusto Pinochet
Allende (right) and his new commander in chief Augusto Pinochet

Stafford Beer and Fernando Flores attempted to error-correct the kerfuffle, explaining that Cybersyn did not give computers any actual control over the economy, and that it was merely a tool to furnish better information to the people who already make economic decisions. But the science fiction was too intoxicating. Reporters made alarming, inaccurate assertions about the abilities of the system and likened it to George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four. An editorial in New Scientist perhaps most succinctly misrepresented Cybersyn and Cyberfolk: "If this is successful, Beer will have created one of the most powerful weapons in history."

By June 1973 the situation was looking grim. There was a slew of new labor strikes throughout Chile, consumer goods were becoming scarce, and hunger became a common concern. On 29 June a column of tanks commanded by Colonel Roberto Souper rumbled into the capital city of Santiago and encircled the presidential palace as residents fled in panic. The colonel ordered his rebel squadron to attack. The majority of the military was still loyal to the constitutional government, however, and they hastily arrived to set the coup attempt asunder. Several weeks later a right-wing paramilitary contingent assassinated President Allende's assistant. Beer and Flores observed these events with consternation, feeling that the quick completion of Cybersyn may be the only way to patch up the economy and ease tensions in time to save Allende’s presidency. They worked to exhaustion to finish the system and bring it online, but it seemed increasingly likely that the foreign meddlers would get their way.

During the month of August opposition saboteurs damaged oil pipelines and the electrical grid. The violence from public demonstrations claimed the lives of at least 20 citizens. Shops closed due to lack of goods, and citizens waited in long lines for food. General Prats, commander-in-chief of the Chilean army, resigned his position after failing to restore order. He was replaced by his second in command General Augusto Pinochet.

Early in the morning on 11 September 1973 President Allende received word that the Chilean navy had turned against him. Navy forces were systematically seizing seaports, deploying infantry, and silencing television and radio broadcasts on their way to the capital. Allende attempted to phone Admiral Montero, commander of the Navy and loyal ally, but rebels had cut the Admiral's phone lines and disabled his car. He attempted to phone the general of the Air Force and the new commander-in-chief General Pinochet, but they declined to answer. Your call is unimportant to us, please continue to be deposed.

Troops outside the burning presidential palace.
Troops outside the burning presidential palace.

Men and machines from the army, navy, and air force surrounded the barricaded presidential palace on all axes. The president's telephone rang. Minister of Finance Fernando Flores, who had become one of President Allende's closest aides, spoke to the caller. The voice demanded Allende's immediate resignation and unconditional surrender. The president declined. Instead he walked to the palace's radio room and addressed the citizenry of Chile with a live broadcast. An excerpt follows:

Workers I have faith in Chile and its destiny. Go forward knowing that sooner rather than later avenues will open along which free men will walk to build a better society. Long live Chile. Long live the people. Long live the workers.

General Pinochet, one of the primary instigators of the coup, grew weary of phone negotiations and ordered the air force to attack the historic palace. Low-flying jet aircraft pounded the building with democracy-seeking rockets. Sections collapsed as a column of smoke billowed from the roof. Sometime around 2:30pm, amidst the explosions and choking smoke, Allende ordered his fellow defenders to surrender lest they all be killed. They did as he asked. Before leaving the building Allende's personal physician returned to the president's office and found Allende dead. After sending everyone away the president had evidently shot himself through the head with his AK-47 assault rifle, a gift from Fidel Castro. He was 65 years old.

Stafford Beer was in London lobbying support for the Chilean government when he saw the news on a newspaper billboard. The headline was technically incorrect but sufficient in substance: "Allende Assassinated." Beer had apparently missed his deadline.

Nixon and Kissinger's political broken eggs soon congealed into a colossal, appalling omelette with extra demagogue sauce. As the presidential palace still burned, General Pinochet suspended the constitution, dissolved Congress, and installed himself and other military leaders as the new government. This junta imposed strict censorship and curfew upon the populace. Troops gathered and imprisoned citizens who disapproved of the administration's politics. The National Stadium of Chile, a sports arena, was repurposed into a detention center where over 40,000 people would eventually be held. Men were kept in the field and gallery, and women were locked away in the swimming pool changing rooms. Interrogations were carried out in the bicycle track.

Under Pinochet's leadership the police and military imprisoned, tortured, killed, or "disappeared" tens of thousands of Chileans on suspicion of incorrect politics. CIA officers observed and reported these human rights violations, but the United States declined to intervene further. Pinochet’s men found and destroyed Cybernet and the Cybersyn control room, abruptly ending the cybernetic experiment. Stafford Beer did all he could from afar to assist his Chilean colleagues to escape the deteriorating Chile, but Fernando Flores was already imprisoned. Flores spent three years in military concentration camps, and he was subjected to prolonged psychological torture.

In 1975 the United States Senate assembled the uneconomically monikered United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. This investigative body concluded that the CIA and Nixon administration had indeed funded and fomented the attempted Chilean coup in 1970; and following that failure they applied pressure and propaganda to undermine democratically elected President Allende. The report summed up the sentiment thusly: "US officials in the years before 1973 may not always have succeeded in walking the thin line between monitoring indigenous coup plotting and actually stimulating it." Many documents regarding the US intervention in Chile remain classified today.

Flores was finally released and exiled in the late 1970s, and he relocated to California with the assistance of Amnesty International. He spent the remainder of the Pinochet years earning a PhD in philosophy and making a small fortune programming software. Meanwhile Stafford Beer abandoned most of his worldly belongings and moved to a small cottage in Wales. He gave up such luxuries as indoor plumbing and telephone service and devoted much of the rest of his life to his poetry, his artwork, and his beard. He advocated and practiced cybernetic techniques for the rest of his days.

General Augusto Pinochet remained the de facto dictator in Chile until 1988, when he acquiesced to pressure from the citizenry, the UN, and the Catholic church to reform the constitution and hold a new presidential election. The Chilean people declined to re-elect him. He stepped down in 1990 and left the country. The new government indicted the general on human rights violations, and nearly a decade after leaving office he was apprehended in London on an international arrest warrant. Back in Chile the elderly ex-dictator lived a mostly quiet life while Chilean courts argued over his eligibility for incarceration. He died of heart failure on 10 December 2006, aged 91.

The remains of Allende's distinctive eyewear.
The remains of Allende's distinctive eyewear.

Fernando Flores eventually returned to his native Chile. In 2001 he was elected as a senator there, and in 2004 and 2006 he made bids for the Chilean presidency, but he was ultimately unsuccessful. He still lives there today. His friend Stafford Beer died in 2002 at the age of 75.

Thanks to dubiously motivated foreign interference, it is now impossible to say whether Cybersyn could have revolutionized the Chilean economy. Given its utopian ambitiousness, quite possibly not. But it is almost certain that President Allende, despite his un-American political affiliation, would have been preferable to the dictator most famous for his Caravan of Death program. As it is, Cybersyn stands as yet another interesting idea sacrificed in the volcano of human tribalism. At least we can take comfort in the fact that we have reasonable, rational humans in charge of our societies rather than those cold, calculating computers.

Update: Stafford Beer's son Simon wrote in to Damn Interesting to share his personal insights.

Article written by Alan Bellows, published on 19 October 2012. Alan is the founder/designer/head writer/managing editor of Damn Interesting.

Podcast sound design by Alan Bellows. Podcast narration by Simon Whistler.

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Posted 19 October 2012 at 08:25 am

As always, Damn Interesting!

Posted 19 October 2012 at 11:05 am

"reasonable, rational humans in charge of our societies"

Posted 19 October 2012 at 11:07 am

What a fantastic article! I'm a programmer myself and after reading this I feel that although cybersyn failed it was in its own indirect way a grandfather to the internet and systems like 'Smart cities' being developed by IBM right now.

I wonder what changed between then and now to allow machines to run the economy.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 11:07 am

I love the democracy-seeking missiles, and cultivating cobwebs. Alan's turns of phrase are arguably as damn interesting as the articles themselves! But was the computerized dictator supposed to be ruling with a silicon fist, rather than a silicone one? Computers are not made from silicone, but then one could imagine a cyborg with silicone hands - not an explicit part of the story, but perhaps this is the imagery Alan was aiming for. Otherwise, DI as usual!

Posted 19 October 2012 at 11:41 am

damn nixon, good thing he's dead or i'd go find him in his nursing home and slap his face.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 11:42 am

Wait, issn't that John Rhys-Davies?

Posted 19 October 2012 at 11:47 am

Very Nice! Going to download the podcast edition and try it out now.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 01:22 pm


It might be asserted, given these two observations:

1. One senior government official, referring to the particularly bleak 17 October, later asserted, “the government would have collapsed that night if it had not had the cybernetic tool.”
2. After sending everyone away the president had evidently shot himself through the head with his AK-47 assault rifle, a gift from Fidel Castro.

that President Salvador Allende died from cybernetic's, since it allowed the unrest to continue and escalate rather than end on 17 October.

Thanks for another fantastic article, expertly word-smithed.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 04:09 pm

It's stories like this one that lead me to believe that the world would have been a much better place if the US had just minded its own business, instead of trying to reshape the world in its own image.

One can only hope that the people in the US Government today have learned their history well enough to quit trying to repeat it.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 05:53 pm

Lovely brain food thank you.

I particularly liked 'mutually assured distraction'. Very Good!

Of course, and as ever, more please.


Posted 19 October 2012 at 05:56 pm

...and just in case it didn't post,

Thank you fro a lovely bit of brain food Mr. Bellows.

I particularly liked 'mutually assured distraction'. Very good sir!

As ever, more please!


Posted 19 October 2012 at 09:07 pm

This is why we can't have nice things. A tool that will (gasp!) streamline government, making it more efficient, and more responsive to the needs of the people rather than the needs of lobbyist? That is indeed one of the most powerful weapons in history.

If only politicians here ran simulations before enacting policy that led to the disastrous housing market collapse.

All in all, this is one of the most damn interesting stories I've read.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 09:10 pm

HiEv said: "It’s stories like this one that lead me to believe that the world would have been a much better place if the US had just minded its own business, instead of trying to reshape the world in its own image.

One can only hope that the people in the US Government today have learned their history well enough to quit trying to repeat it."

I don't think they have, but I think they're getting too broke to repeat history.

Posted 19 October 2012 at 09:46 pm

Richard Nixon was born on January 9th 1913....

Richard Nixon will have been 100 years old in less than 3 months time from now.

Happy Birthday, you Crook!

Posted 19 October 2012 at 09:50 pm

By the way Alan, I was looking up youtube videos about CIA secrets 2 nights ago, and watched an interesting video about this very subject. What caught my eye was "11 September 1973" and a picture of a building being bombed.

- The Memory Error Guy

Posted 20 October 2012 at 04:07 pm

DI (yet) again, Alan!
...I liked the Terry Bisson reference too: "thinking meat".

(For those who have not yet enjoyed it, look up Bisson's tiny radio play "They're Made out of Meat".)

Posted 23 October 2012 at 09:10 am

Sadly, this is a quite interesting story. I can't imagine how much this would have changed to world we live in today if it had come to fruition. I feel ashamed that I live in the same world as people who can do things like this...

Posted 29 October 2012 at 02:23 pm

Brilliant, Alan!

Posted 05 November 2012 at 02:53 pm

"...the fourth wall, dear reader,..."

Posted 13 November 2012 at 07:07 am

chronophilos said: "“…the fourth wall, dear reader,…”

Bet Alan was giggling to himself when he wrote that!

Juan Guillermo
Posted 13 November 2012 at 02:49 pm

A great, eye opening article.
Didn't know about this really interesting bit of history from my own country... even though I did study Informatics Engineering, one would think something like this would at least have been mentioned.

A couple of corrections, though.
General Pinochet did not leave the country after giving back power to democratically elected Patricio Aylwin. He wouldn't, as international orders for his prosecution were in place.
He instead remained as the head of the military, effectively putting pressure on the government whenever they attempted to delve too deep into secrets from the past, or investigate and prosecute fellow military men.
He eventually left the Commander in Chief role, and went on to become lifelong senator (a constitutional reform left in place by his administration, to assure him protection against indictments).
He eventually did travel to England, were he thought himself safe from prosecution, and was held for months at a request from spanish judge Baltazar Garzon.
Eventually released do to heatlh concerns, came back to Chile and withered away, dying as mentioned previously.

So that's it. Thanks for a great little lesson on history! :)

Posted 18 November 2012 at 04:42 am

Juan Guillermo said: "A couple of corrections, though.
General Pinochet did not leave the country after giving back power to democratically elected Patricio Aylwin. He wouldn’t, as international orders for his prosecution were in place.

Actually, this isn't correct, Juan Guillermo (I know *who* you are).

Six months after leaving the presidency, Pinochet took a two-week long vacation in Argentina (Chile's constitution forbids any ex-president to leave the country without the Congress' approval for six months after his term).

Pinochet also went *several* times to the UK, as a government representative (with a diplomatic passport!) to attend military matters.

There were NO international orders for his prosecution, at all, until Baltasar Garzón's one (the legality of which wasn't too solid, either).

Alan, hopefully you won't censor this post of mine as well...

Posted 22 November 2012 at 08:23 am

There are several misrepresentations in this article, but I will only refer to a few of the most salient.

As a Chilean, I am offended by the comment that "Allende, in spite of his Socialist leanings, was an outspoken proponent of civil liberties ..." That is ridiculous for anyone who knows anything about Chilean history.

You do not need to be a Pinochet apologist to know that Allende was certainly not a democrat and that he used his time in office to reduce the liberties of Chileans to the point of prolonging himself and his cronies in power indefinitely. And this is in addition to the willful destruction of the economy so that it would justify a government takeover of all aspects of society (and move Chile towards a totalitarian state).

With respect to the cybernetic system designed, you describe the (unrealistic) dreams and hopes of their designers, but the thing certainly was never to work as envisioned. And even if it did, we all know how well planned economies work in the real world. Just think that, even today, with far more powerful computers and networks, no one reasonably attempts to have central control of an economy.

Finally, the world was boycotting the sale of products to Chile not so much because of US pressure, but because the Chilean government expropriated foreign assets without paying for them. This meant that there were claims against the Chilean government around the world and it was impossible for it to secure payments to providers or, even sell its products abroad. In fact, one of the first things that the government had to do after Allende was ousted was to settle with creditors in order to be able to trade as a normal country.

Alan Bellows
Posted 24 November 2012 at 06:33 pm

Ignacio said: "As a Chilean, I am offended by the comment that "Allende, in spite of his Socialist leanings, was an outspoken proponent of civil liberties ..." That is ridiculous for anyone who knows anything about Chilean history."

This is why we seldom cover topics that concern politics...people have strong political opinions, and every political figure inevitably has detractors. Sadly we could not tell this story without making some political contact.

You can be offended if you like, but it's a waste of energy. Regardless of whether you feel his outspeaking was heartfelt, he did claim to be a believer in civil liberties, and some of his actions supported that claim. You're entitled to feel he was insincere. Some people disagree.

Posted 25 November 2012 at 04:03 am

"Some people disagree."

Oh, Alan, no wonder you censored my first comment on this thread...

Alan Bellows
Posted 25 November 2012 at 03:31 pm

mfarah said: "Oh, Alan, no wonder you censored my first comment on this thread..."

We don't "censor" comments unless they are clearly awful (obvious spam, openly abusive, revealing private information, etc). Apart from spam comments, I could count on one hand the number of comments we have ever deleted. If you cannot see an earlier comment you left there was probably a technical glitch (failure to post, caught in spam filter, database rollback, etc).

Posted 28 December 2012 at 08:54 pm

A "silicone fist" really? Damn Interesting indeed. Especially considering that a computer hasn't a need for silicone.

Posted 23 May 2013 at 07:41 am

Why can't this system be used by governments all over the world?

Posted 29 January 2014 at 11:37 pm

HiEv said: "It's stories like this one that lead me to believe that the world would have been a much better place if the US had just minded its own business, instead of trying to reshape the world in its own image.

One can only hope that the people in the US Government today have learned their history well enough to quit trying to repeat it."

Thats very obvious my friend... the us keeps on polluting this world.
There is nothing to "learn" here, Its called AGENDA.
They still do it nowadays, see Syria

Posted 15 March 2014 at 02:34 am

Damn interesting. I learnt programming in the early seventies. FORTRAN, Basic, Simula, on an IBM mainframe, then a Univac 1108 (much better!) and then on my very own computer, a Kaypro II with 64k of RAM, of which 2k were occupied by the operating system, CPM80. Yes, only 2k! And Turbo Pascal fitted in the remaining 62k, complete with its editor, and some spare space for the program you were developing! And it cost $59 when others were in the $800 league. A colleague gave me a pirated copy of PL/1 (I think it came on TEN diskettes). I tried it, tested it, junked it and went back to Turbo Pascal.

Ah! Those were the days!

Which brings me back to Salvador Allende. His advisors, whom he believed, were total bullshit artists. There is no way, even today, that a country's economy could be run by computer.

First, because you need an efficient, reliable, model. We don't have that, even today.

Second, because you need computing power. And they didn't have that in Allende's days.

So? So, he fell victim to quacks.

Christine Aicardi
Posted 11 May 2014 at 10:00 am

For rich and detailed account of the Chilean cybernetic management experiment, read Eden Medina's excellent book 'Cybernetic revolutionaries: Technology and politics in Allende's Chile', published in 2011 - a source of inspiration for this post, maybe?

Alan Bellows
Posted 12 May 2014 at 02:52 pm

Christine Aicardi said: "For rich and detailed account of the Chilean cybernetic management experiment, read Eden Medina's excellent book 'Cybernetic revolutionaries: Technology and politics in Allende's Chile', published in 2011 - a source of inspiration for this post, maybe?"

Cybernetic Revolutionaries is indeed an excellent book, and although it was one of the many sources I used (you may have missed the link to the book under Further Reading), it was not the original inspiration. I first discovered Cybersyn back in ~2007 and it just took me forever to properly research the history and frame the story. Thanks!

Matthew Lock
Posted 15 May 2014 at 08:05 pm

HiEv said: "It's stories like this one that lead me to believe that the world would have been a much better place if the US had just minded its own business, instead of trying to reshape the world in its own image.

One can only hope that the people in the US Government today have learned their history well enough to quit trying to repeat it."

Perhaps. But then you wonder what the world might have been like if Japan and Germany weren't stopped in the 40s.

Posted 11 September 2014 at 08:41 am

excellent article.

Posted 02 January 2015 at 09:06 am

Fantastic article. Damn Interesting.

The Firestarter
Posted 20 February 2015 at 04:57 pm

"The fourth wall, dear reader ..." Oh I see what you did there!

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